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Thread: rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's

  1. #1
    Supporting Member thehomeengineer's Avatar
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    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's

    hi All
    I have finally attached the stepper motor and encoder and had the rotary table moving.
    After testing there are a couple of issue that need attention 1st being the variable feed/speed control via a potentiometer. When turned to full rotation it stalls the motor. 2nd I need to check the coupling is tight on the motor shaft and the control box wiring is somewhat messy and will need tidying but as this is the first time I have ever taken on a project like this. It was very much a, make it up as you go along just to get it working and then worry about the presentation at the end.

    The main control is via a Arduino Mega and TB6600 motor controller and the encoder uses a Arduino Nano.

    I did have a lot of help with the programming. Without this help, I don't think I would have completed the project with all the features I wanted.

    The control box has four modes. Degrees, Divisions, Jog and Feed. The Feed is controlled via a potentiometer, which I want to change how this controls the table.

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-wiring.jpg Needs a little tidying

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-setup-sequence.jpg Start up

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-options.jpg Options that can be selected

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-selection.jpg Degrees selected

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-ready.jpg Selection set to 20 degrees and ready to move table.

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-travelled.jpg Angle travelled and small top screen shows position via encoder. Very pleased with accuracy.

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-stepper-motor-adaptor-plate.jpg Aluminium adaptor plate to connect stepper motor to table

    rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-stepper.jpg rotary table driven by stepper motor controlled by 2 Arduino's-motor-inplace.jpg Motor and encoder in place

    This project was a steep learning curve with many mistakes made some expensive It has been very interesting and frustrating at the same time, but as previously mentioned without the help of a very clever electronics apprentice where I work, I would have struggled to complete this project. So a massive thank you to him.

    I have added some links below which are also linked to this project which I think has been roughly a 6 months in the making.

    Links:
    https://www.homemadetools.net/forum/rotary-table-re-ferb-ready-stepper-motor-75765

    rotary table worm shaft
    Comparing worm shaft depth with three wire method
    Rotary table stepper motor encoder mounting plate and encoder bore reducer
    Stepper motor encoder cover

    Thank you for taking the time to view.

    The Home Engineer

  2. The Following 11 Users Say Thank You to thehomeengineer For This Useful Post:

    bobs409 (01-14-2020), DIYSwede (01-10-2020), garage nut (01-11-2020), high-side (01-13-2020), Jon (01-10-2020), Mr Mechanical (01-14-2020), mwmkravchenko (01-13-2020), Paul Jones (01-15-2020), Saltfever (01-20-2020), schatten (01-14-2020), Tonyg (01-16-2020)

  3. #2
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    Thanks thehomeengineer! We've added your Arduino Controlled Rotary Table to our Electronics category,
    as well as to your builder page: thehomeengineer's Homemade Tools. Your receipt:




  4. #3
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    garage nut's Tools
    Please make the code available.

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    Supporting Member thehomeengineer's Avatar
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    thehomeengineer's Tools
    Encoder Arduino code using Arduino Nano


    #include <SPI.h>
    #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
    #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
    #include <Wire.h>


    #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
    #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 32 // OLED display height, in pixels




    // Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
    #define OLED_RESET 4 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)
    Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, OLED_RESET);


    const byte interrupt = 2;
    const byte interruptB = 3;
    const int encoder1PinA = 2; // encoder channel A,B (interupt pins)
    const int encoder1PinB = 3;
    float Pos1deg = 0;




    volatile float encoder1Pos = 0; //ticks of encoder will change, initial number is zero




    void setup()
    {
    Wire.setClock(400000);
    // Serial.begin(9600);
    if (!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { // Address 0x3C for 128x32
    //Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for (;; // Don't proceed, loop forever
    }
    attachInterrupt(0, runEncoder1, RISING ); // encoder pin on interrupt 0 >>(pin 2 on arduino)


    }


    void loop()
    {


    float Pos1;
    uint8_t oldSREG = SREG;


    cli();
    Pos1 = encoder1Pos;
    SREG = oldSREG;
    static int oldPos1;
    if (Pos1 != oldPos1) {
    oldPos1 = Pos1;
    }

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    Rotary table code Used on Arduino Mega


    #include <Wire.h>
    #include <Keypad.h>
    #include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>
    //#include <I2CScanner.h>


    const byte ROWS = 4;
    const byte COLS = 4;
    //****************USER DEFINED**************
    //setup vars
    const int stp = 10; // connect pin D10 to step
    const int dir = 11; // connect pin D11 to dir
    const int StepsPerRotation = 1600; // Set Steps per rotation of stepper NOTE the driver is set to Half step
    const int TableRatio = 90; // ratio of rotary table
    const int stepdelay = 1000; //this is in microseconds
    int delay1 = 2000; //this is used for Splash Screen display time
    byte colPINS[ROWS] = {2, 3, 4, 5}; //pin 1 of keypad to pin 12
    byte rowPINS[COLS] = {6, 7, 8, 9};
    int pot = A0; //potentiometer wiper
    int pot_movement = 0;
    int pot_movement_mapped = 0;
    int adj_speed = 3000; //Speed adjustment (Max mapped uS) Making this LOWER will INCREASE min RPM, making this HIGHER will DECREASE min RPM
    int feed_pot_thresh=5; //Adjust this variable to change when the potentiometer makes the motor move (bigger means more movement to initialise motor)
    int inc = 0;
    int ledbrightness = 120;
    int led_inc = 0;
    int ind_green = 44;
    int ind_red = 46;
    LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 20, 4); // set the LCD address as determined by I2C scanner


    /*
    byte degss[] = {
    B00100,
    B01110,
    B01110,
    B01110,
    B11111,
    B00000,
    B00100,
    B00000
    };
    */


    // SCL - A5, SDA - A4, VCC - +5, Gnd - Gnd
    //***********************************************


    // **************define Debug Macro**************
    //#define DEBUG 1 //delete slashes for printing debug info to serial monitor
    #ifdef DEBUG
    #define DEBUG_Print(x) Serial.print(x)
    #define DEBUG_PrintDec(x,y) Serial.print(x,y)
    #define DEBUG_Println(x) Serial.println(x)
    #else
    #define DEBUG_Print(x)
    #define DEBUG_PrintDec(x,y)
    #define DEBUG_Println(x)
    #endif




    char keys[ROWS][COLS] = {
    {'1', '2', '3', 'A'},
    {'4', '5', '6', 'B'},
    {'7', '8', '9', 'C'},
    {'.', '0', '#', 'D'}
    };


    Keypad kpd = Keypad(makeKeymap(keys), rowPINS, colPINS, ROWS, COLS);


    int moved;
    long Multiplier;
    long cumSteps = 0;
    float Degrees = 0.; // Degrees from keypad
    long ToMove = 0; // Steps to move


    float bob = 0.; //this tracks current position in degrees


    int cho = 0;


    void setup()
    {
    //lcd.createChar(0, degss);


    #ifdef DEBUG
    Serial.begin(9600);
    #endif
    Multiplier = (long)TableRatio * StepsPerRotation;
    lcd.init(); // initialize the lcd


    pinMode(stp, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(dir, OUTPUT);


    // Print welcome message to the LCD.
    lcd.backlight();
    lcd.print("Rotary Table Control");
    lcd.setCursor(1, 2);
    lcd.print("The Home Engineer.");
    lcd.setCursor(8, 3);
    lcd.print("2019");
    //delay1 = 500;
    //delay (delay1);


    // fade in from min to max in increments of 5 points - indicator LEDs:
    while (led_inc != 2) {
    for (int fadeValue = 0 ; fadeValue <= 255; fadeValue += 5) {
    // sets the value (range from 0 to 255):
    analogWrite(ind_green, fadeValue);
    analogWrite(ind_red, fadeValue);
    // wait for 30 milliseconds to see the dimming effect
    delay(30);
    }


    // fade out from max to min in increments of 5 points:
    for (int fadeValue = 255 ; fadeValue >= 0; fadeValue -= 5) {
    // sets the value (range from 0 to 255):
    analogWrite(ind_green, fadeValue);
    analogWrite(ind_red, fadeValue);
    // wait for 30 milliseconds to see the dimming effect
    delay(30);
    }
    led_inc = (led_inc + 1);
    }
    digitalWrite(ind_red, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(ind_green, LOW);
    lcd.init();
    cho = 0;
    // *************************************************


    char key = kpd.getKey();
    lcd.print("Degrees "); lcd.print(" = A");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
    lcd.print("Divisions = B");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 2);
    lcd.print("JOG = C");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 3);
    lcd.print("Feed = D");


    while (cho == 0)
    {
    key = kpd.getKey();
    switch (key)
    {
    case NO_KEY:
    break;
    case 'A':
    Degrees = getdegrees();
    lcd.clear();
    cho = 1;
    break;
    case 'B':
    Degrees = getdivisions();
    cho = 2;
    break;
    case 'C':
    Degrees = getjog();
    lcd.clear();
    cho = 3;
    break;
    case 'D':
    Degrees = getfeed();
    lcd.clear();
    cho = 4;
    break;




    } // end case
    } // end while cho=0
    DEBUG_Print("90 = 1"); DEBUG_Println(TableRatio);
    DEBUG_Print("800 = 1"); DEBUG_Println(StepsPerRotation);
    DEBUG_Print("800 = 360"); DEBUG_Println(Multiplier);




    } // end setup


    void loop() // MAIN LOOP
    {
    lcd.clear();
    char key = kpd.getKey();
    bob = 0;


    cumSteps = 0;
    lcd.setCursor(7, 0); lcd.print("Total: "); lcd.print(" "); lcd.setCursor(14, 0); lcd.print(bob, 2); // total steps


    lcd.setCursor(0, 3); lcd.print("FOR=A REV=B X=C");
    while (key != 'C') // C will return to start menu
    {
    lcd.setCursor(0, 0); lcd.print(abs(Degrees), 2); lcd.print((char)223);
    key = kpd.getKey();
    if (key == 'A') // FORWARD
    {


    bob = bob + Degrees;


    ToMove = (bob * Multiplier) / 360 + 0.5 - cumSteps;


    cumSteps = cumSteps + ToMove;


    digitalWrite(dir, LOW);
    printadvance();


    }
    if (key == 'B') // REVERSE
    {


    bob = bob - Degrees;
    ToMove = -1*((bob * Multiplier) / 360 + 0.5 - cumSteps);


    cumSteps = cumSteps - ToMove;








    digitalWrite(dir, HIGH); // pin 13
    printadvance();
    }
    } // end while not C loop
    lcd.init();
    setup();
    } // end main VOID






    float getjog() // used to set mechanical ratio and steps per revolution
    {
    digitalWrite(ind_red, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(ind_green, LOW);
    float Degrees = 0;
    float num = 0.00;
    char key = kpd.getKey();
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.setCursor(6, 0); lcd.print("Jogging");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("A=0.5 B=1 C=5 Deg's ");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 2); lcd.print("Choose Degrees:"); lcd.setCursor(0, 3); lcd.print("OK = # "); lcd.print((char)60); lcd.print((char)45); lcd.print(" D");


    while (key != '#')
    {
    switch (key)
    {
    case NO_KEY:
    break;
    case 'A':
    Degrees = 0.5;
    lcd.setCursor(16, 2); lcd.print(Degrees, 1);
    break;
    case 'B':
    Degrees = 1;
    lcd.setCursor(16, 2); lcd.print(Degrees, 1);
    break;
    case 'C':
    Degrees = 5;
    lcd.setCursor(16, 2); lcd.print(Degrees, 1);
    break;
    case 'D':
    num = 0.00;
    lcd.setCursor(15, 2); lcd.print(" ");
    lcd.setCursor(15, 2);
    break;
    }
    key = kpd.getKey();
    }
    return Degrees;
    }




    float getdivisions()
    {
    digitalWrite(ind_green, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(ind_red, LOW);
    lcd.noBlink();
    float Degrees = 0;
    float num = 0.00;
    char key = kpd.getKey();
    lcd.clear();
    lcd.blink();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Enter Division:");
    lcd.setCursor(0, 3); lcd.print("OK = # ");
    lcd.print((char)60); lcd.print((char)45); lcd.print(" D");
    lcd.setCursor(16, 1);


    while (key != '#')
    {
    switch (key)
    {
    case NO_KEY:
    break;


    case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
    case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
    num = num * 10 + (key - '0');
    lcd.print(key);
    break;


    case 'D':
    num = 0.00;
    lcd.setCursor(16, 1); lcd.print(" ");
    lcd.setCursor(16, 1);
    break;
    }
    Degrees = 360 / num;
    key = kpd.getKey();
    }
    return Degrees; //num;
    }


    float getfeed()
    {
    digitalWrite(ind_green, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(ind_red, LOW);
    lcd.noBlink();
    //int key = 0;
    float num = 0.00;
    float decimal = 0.00;
    float decnum = 0.00;
    int counter = 0;
    lcd.clear();
    //lcd.init();
    lcd.setCursor(2, 0);
    lcd.print("Use potentiometer");
    lcd.setCursor(2, 1);
    lcd.print("to set the speed");
    lcd.setCursor(5, 2);
    lcd.print("of rotation");
    delay(1500);
    lcd.clear();




    char key = kpd.getKey();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Enter Degrees:"); lcd.setCursor(0, 3); lcd.print("OK = # "); lcd.print((char)60); lcd.print((char)45); lcd.print(" D");
    lcd.setCursor(15, 1);
    lcd.blink();
    bool decOffset = false;


    while (key != '#')
    {
    switch (key)
    {
    case NO_KEY:
    break;


    case '.':
    if (!decOffset)
    {
    decOffset = true;
    }
    lcd.print(key);
    break;


    case 'D':
    num = 0.00;
    lcd.setCursor(15, 1); lcd.print(" ");
    lcd.setCursor(15, 1);
    break;


    case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
    case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
    if (!decOffset)
    {
    num = num * 10 + (key - '0');
    lcd.print(key);
    }
    else if ((decOffset) && (counter <= 1))
    {
    num = num * 10 + (key - '0');
    lcd.print(key);
    counter++;
    }
    break;
    } //end case
    decnum = num / pow(10, counter);
    key = kpd.getKey();
    } //end while not #
    return decnum;
    } // end getdegrees


    float getdegrees()
    {
    digitalWrite(ind_red, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(ind_green, LOW);
    lcd.noBlink();
    //int key = 0;
    float num = 0.00;
    float decimal = 0.00;
    float decnum = 0.00;
    int counter = 0;
    lcd.clear();
    //lcd.init();
    char key = kpd.getKey();
    lcd.blink();
    lcd.setCursor(0, 1); lcd.print("Enter Degrees:"); lcd.setCursor(0, 3); lcd.print("OK = # "); lcd.print((char)60); lcd.print((char)45); lcd.print(" D");
    lcd.setCursor(15, 1);
    bool decOffset = false;


    while (key != '#')
    {
    switch (key)
    {
    case NO_KEY:
    break;


    case '.':
    if (!decOffset)
    {
    decOffset = true;
    }
    lcd.print(key);
    break;


    case 'D':
    num = 0.00;
    lcd.setCursor(15, 1); lcd.print(" ");
    lcd.setCursor(15, 1);
    break;


    case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
    case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
    if (!decOffset)
    {
    num = num * 10 + (key - '0');
    lcd.print(key);
    }
    else if ((decOffset) && (counter <= 1))
    {
    num = num * 10 + (key - '0');
    lcd.print(key);
    counter++;
    }
    break;
    } //end case
    decnum = num / pow(10, counter);
    key = kpd.getKey();
    } //end while not #
    return decnum;
    } // end getdegrees


    void printadvance() // print function
    {
    lcd.noBlink();
    lcd.setCursor(6, 1); lcd.print("Moving");
    lcd.setCursor(14, 0); lcd.print(bob, 2);
    rotation(ToMove, 0);
    lcd.setCursor(6, 1); lcd.print(" ");
    }


    void rotation(long tm, int d)
    {
    DEBUG_Print("Total Degrees = "); DEBUG_PrintDec(bob, 3); DEBUG_Print(" Steps to move = "); DEBUG_Print(tm); DEBUG_Print(" Total Steps = "); DEBUG_Println(cumSteps);


    if (cho == 4 || cho == 2) {
    for (long i = 0; i < tm; i++) //tm == To Movement
    {
    //pot_movement = analogRead(pot);
    pot_movement_mapped = map (analogRead(pot), 0, 1023, 0, adj_speed);
    if(pot_movement_mapped<(adj_speed-feed_pot_thresh)){//only move if the pot is above a threshold
    digitalWrite(stp, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(pot_movement_mapped);
    digitalWrite(stp, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(pot_movement_mapped);
    }
    else{//decrement i if the motor hasn't been moved to ensure full motion is acheived
    i--;
    }
    }
    }
    else {
    for (long i = 0; i < tm; i++) //tm == Total Movement
    {
    digitalWrite(stp, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(stepdelay);
    digitalWrite(stp, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(stepdelay);
    }




    }
    }


    void software_Reset() // Restarts program from beginning but does not reset the peripherals and registers
    {
    asm volatile (" jmp 0");
    }
    Last edited by thehomeengineer; 01-13-2020 at 08:13 AM.

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  8. #6
    Supporting Member thehomeengineer's Avatar
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    thehomeengineer's Tools
    Hi Garage Nut
    I have posted the code on HMT (above)
    Please note I am sure there is a better way to programme but this is my first attempt. If improvements can be made to both codes I would be interested as this is been a long and sometimes frustrating, step learning curve for me and it has taken well over six months to get it to finally work. Lots of help and research on the net to try and understand C+ code. This was suppose to be a simple index project but grow and grow as I realised what could be achieved with the Arduino. I am more than happy for members on HMT to rip the code apart and tell me how I could improve or made it better. I feel the programming is as messy as the wiring in the control box but it does work.
    The Home Engineer

  9. #7
    Supporting Member garage nut's Avatar
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    garage nut's Tools
    Thanks

    That is some serious code to start with.

    Will take me a while to work through it and uunderstand it. My coding abilities are down to a couple of switches and LEDs.

  10. #8
    Supporting Member metric_taper's Avatar
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    metric_taper's Tools
    Quote Originally Posted by thehomeengineer View Post
    Encoder Arduino code using Arduino Nano


    #include <SPI.h>
    #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
    #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
    #include <Wire.h>


    #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
    #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 32 // OLED display height, in pixels




    // Declaration for an SSD1306 display connected to I2C (SDA, SCL pins)
    #define OLED_RESET 4 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)
    Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, OLED_RESET);


    const byte interrupt = 2;
    const byte interruptB = 3;
    const int encoder1PinA = 2; // encoder channel A,B (interupt pins)
    const int encoder1PinB = 3;
    float Pos1deg = 0;




    volatile float encoder1Pos = 0; //ticks of encoder will change, initial number is zero




    void setup()
    {
    Wire.setClock(400000);
    // Serial.begin(9600);
    if (!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { // Address 0x3C for 128x32
    //Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for (;; // Don't proceed, loop forever
    }
    attachInterrupt(0, runEncoder1, RISING ); // encoder pin on interrupt 0 >>(pin 2 on arduino)


    }


    void loop()
    {


    float Pos1;
    uint8_t oldSREG = SREG;


    cli();
    Pos1 = encoder1Pos;
    SREG = oldSREG;
    static int oldPos1;
    if (Pos1 != oldPos1) {
    oldPos1 = Pos1;
    }
    I thought there would be an ISR routine for the attachInterrupt. Am I missing something in how arduino code works?

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  12. #9
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    Mr Mechanical's Tools
    Well done getting this to work! I have learned a lot about stepper motors in the process of make my milling machine power feed, however your project look somewhat more complex.

    I have the same issue with me stepper motor stalling at the higher end of my potentiometer so I'd be very interested to hear how you fix it.

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  14. #10
    Supporting Member thehomeengineer's Avatar
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    Hi Mr Mechanical
    I changed a few this in the code on Monday. One was to increase the 3000 value to 4000 in the below line of code and this seems to have cured the stalling issue for the moment.


    int adj_speed = 3000; //Speed adjustment (Max mapped uS) Making this LOWER will INCREASE min RPM, making this HIGHER will DECREASE min RPM

    I also changed how the potentiometer worked by using an else statement so the pot woul not allow any movement of the table until the pot was moved from zero setting. Got myself in bit of a mess but again very fortunate to have young lads who have grown up with programming. I use the Arduino site which really helps you understand the program statements but I still have trouble and over complicate what potential only needs a couple of lines of code to achieve the required outcome. I just have ago until I get past my understanding and ability play a bit to see if I can sort it out then once I am at the stage when I have completely buggered up I seek advice. As I said before with out the help of others I would really struggle. I looked up on ebay when I started to purchase items for this project and it has taken about 9 months in total to get to where the project is today.

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    Paul Jones (01-15-2020)

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