Can't believe I forgot this..
The Jaquard Loom, which is arguably the foundational concept of modern CNC manufacturing.
Anyway, on to a response to your request...
France has given us some of the most influential mathematicians who have provided much of the analytic framework on which modern developments are based. Here is a partial list...
Blaise Pascal - projective geometry, mechanical calculator, Pascal's law, Pascal's triangle
Pierre Fermat - difference quotient (precursor to differential calculus), Fermat's last theorem, Fermat's principle
Jean-Baptiste Fourier - Fourier series, Fourier transform, greenhouse effect
René Descartes - analytical geometry, Cartesian coordinates, rationalism
Pierre-Simon Laplace - Laplace's equation, Laplace transform
The work of many of these mathematicians extends into the scientific world. In addition, there are many key French scientists as this list shows...
Fun fact: US measurement standards are actually defined in metric units. 8:51 video from a visit to the National Institute of Standards and Technology:
Moby Duck (Dec 22, 2020)
And then you've this: The stone or stone weight (abbreviation: st.) is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds (approximately 6.35 kg). The stone continues in customary use in Britain and Ireland for body weight, but was prohibited for commercial use in the United Kingdom by the Weights and Measures Act of 1985.
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