Can't believe I forgot this..
The Jaquard Loom, which is arguably the foundational concept of modern CNC manufacturing.
Your contribution to this thread could easily be interpreted as an insult to the French people and culture. I'd like to think that it wasn't meant that way but you might want to think about offering some clarification of what you meant.
Anyway, on to a response to your request...
France has given us some of the most influential mathematicians who have provided much of the analytic framework on which modern developments are based. Here is a partial list...
Blaise Pascal - projective geometry, mechanical calculator, Pascal's law, Pascal's triangle
Pierre Fermat - difference quotient (precursor to differential calculus), Fermat's last theorem, Fermat's principle
Jean-Baptiste Fourier - Fourier series, Fourier transform, greenhouse effect
René Descartes - analytical geometry, Cartesian coordinates, rationalism
Pierre-Simon Laplace - Laplace's equation, Laplace transform
The work of many of these mathematicians extends into the scientific world. In addition, there are many key French scientists as this list shows...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_French_scientists
Jon (Dec 20, 2020), metric_taper (Dec 20, 2020), Moby Duck (Dec 22, 2020), Toolmaker51 (Dec 21, 2020)
Fun fact: US measurement standards are actually defined in metric units. 8:51 video from a visit to the National Institute of Standards and Technology:
Christophe Mineau (Dec 22, 2020), FEM2008 (Dec 26, 2020), jimfols (Dec 21, 2020), Moby Duck (Dec 22, 2020)
Suggested reading:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound_(mass)#Current_use
just my 2 cents
Johan
Moby Duck (Dec 22, 2020)
And then you've this: The stone or stone weight (abbreviation: st.) is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds (approximately 6.35 kg). The stone continues in customary use in Britain and Ireland for body weight, but was prohibited for commercial use in the United Kingdom by the Weights and Measures Act of 1985.
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